Plus, our shortlist of outstanding online brokers
Check out our shortlist of outstanding online brokers below. Once the pricing details and date for an IPO are finalized, mark your calendar: This will be the date when shares of the newly public company are available to buy.
Breadth of research from other providers and own offering
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The offering price announced ahead of the IPO is reserved for a limited group of investors — including employees and those investors who satisfy certain eligibility requirements (like the size of their assets or how frequently they trade). For most investors, investing in an IPO means buying the stock once it begins trading on the open market. The opening price, which will reflect demand for the stock in question on the day it debuts, could differ dramatically from the offering price. IPOs can spike higher and plummet quickly in the early days of being publicly traded. Consider Snap, the parent company of Snapchat that went public in 2017 with an IPO price of $17. It jumped more than 40% on its first day of trading, but in the past year has traded between $5 and $15 a share.
Once you’ve set up and funded your brokerage account, it’s time to pick stocks. A good place to start is by researching the companies you already know as a consumer.
Don’t let the deluge of data and real-time market gyrations overwhelm you as you conduct your research. It’s important to keep your goals simple. Find companies that make you want to be part owner.
When choosing where to invest, take a look at the company’s annual report — specifically management’s annual letter to shareholders. The letter will give you a ton of insight into what’s happening with the business and provide context for the numbers in the report.
After that, most of the info and tools you need to evaluate the business will be on your broker’s website, such as SEC filings, conference call transcripts, quarterly earnings updates and recent news. Most brokers also provide guides on how to use their tools and even basic seminars on how to pick stocks.
You should feel absolutely no pressure to buy a certain number of shares or fill your entire portfolio position in a stock all at once. Consider starting small to get a feel for what it’s like to own individual stocks and whether you have the fortitude to ride through the rough patches with minimal sleep loss. You can add to your position over time as you master stock trading.
There are two order types that successful investors rely on all the time: market orders and limit orders.
With a market order, you’re indicating that you’ll buy or sell the stock at the best available current market price. Don’t be surprised if the price you pay — or receive, if you’re selling — is not the exact price you were quoted just seconds before. Bid and ask prices, as they’re called (see our cheat sheet below), fluctuate constantly throughout the day. That’s why a market order is best used when buying stocks that don’t experience wide price swings — large, steady blue-chip stocks as opposed to smaller, more volatile ones.
Before you place a market order, there are a few things to keep in mind:
A limit order gives you more control over the price at which your trade is done. If XYZ stock is trading at $100 a share, but you think a $95 per-share price is more in line with how you value the company, your limit order tells your broker to hold tight and execute your order only when the ask price drops to that level. On the selling side, a limit order tells your broker to part with the shares once the bid rises to the level you set.
Limit orders are a good tool for investors buying and selling smaller company stocks, which tend to experience wider spreads, depending on investor activity. Limit orders are also good for investing during periods of short-term stock market volatility or when stock price is more important than order fulfillment.
There are additional conditions you can place on a limit order to control how long the order will remain open. An “all or none” (AON) order will be executed only when all the shares you wish to trade are available at your price limit. A “good for day” (GFD) order will expire at the end of the trading day — even if the order has not been fully filled. A “good till canceled” (GTC) order remains in play until the customer pulls the plug or the order expires; that’s anywhere from 60 to 120 days or more.
There are a few things to keep in mind before you place a limit order:
Get help navigating through all the numbers and stock trading terms. Spruce up your vocab with this trading terms cheat sheet.
For buyers: The price that sellers are willing to accept for the stock.
For sellers: The price that buyers are willing to pay for the stock.
The difference between the highest bid price and the lowest ask price.
A request to buy or sell a stock ASAP at the best available price.
A request to buy or sell a stock only at a specific price or better.
Stop (or stop-loss) order
Once a stock reaches a certain price, the “stop price” or “stop level,” a market order is executed and the entire order is filled at the prevailing price.
When the stop price is reached, the trade turns into a limit order and is filled up to the point where specified price limits can be met.
High five! Now you’re ready to invest. To get started choosing a broker, check out our list of standouts above to find the right one for you.
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