Many or all of the products featured here are from our partners who compensate us. This may influence which products we write about and where and how the product appears on a page. However, this does not influence our evaluations. Our opinions are our own. Here is a list of our partners and here's how we make money.
The investing information provided on this page is for educational purposes only. NerdWallet does not offer advisory or brokerage services, nor does it recommend or advise investors to buy or sell particular stocks, securities or other investments.
Roth IRAs offer significant tax advantages — and, unsurprisingly, there are strings attached. You’ll need to abide by IRS rules for these investment retirement accounts to avoid the sticker shock of penalties or taxes when you take distributions.
Below, we cover three of the rules for Roth IRA withdrawals, all of which have a five-year stipulation to avoid penalties. One applies to the general waiting period before you can take withdrawals of investment earnings (also known as distributions), another applies to Roth conversions, and the final pertains to beneficiaries.
Here’s what you need to know about each.
Five-year rule for withdrawals
The five-year rule for Roth IRA withdrawals of investment earnings requires that you hold your account for at least five years before you can tap those earnings without incurring a penalty. It’s important to note this rule applies specifically to investment earnings. The contributions you’ve made can be withdrawn at any time because you’ve already paid taxes on this money.
This rule determines whether a withdrawal of earnings will be considered tax-free by the IRS. If it’s not, you may be liable to pay taxes and a 10% penalty on the earnings portion of your distribution. (Here’s what you need to know if you’re considering an early withdrawal.)
The five-year period begins on Jan. 1 of the year you made your first contribution to any Roth IRA. Once you clear that five-year period, for withdrawals of earnings to qualify as tax-free, they must also be done after age 59½ or because you qualify for certain exceptions. If you've had your Roth for less than five years, there are also exceptions that can get you off the hook for the 10% penalty on withdrawn earnings — but not all income taxes.
Five-year rule for Roth conversions
Similar to the rule above, withdrawals of money from the conversion of a traditional IRA or 401(k) to a Roth IRA are subject to a five-year waiting period to avoid a penalty.
For this rule, the five-year period begins the first day of the tax year in which you converted money from a traditional IRA (or did a rollover from a qualified retirement plan) to your Roth IRA. For example, if you do a conversion on May 1, 2022, the rule for that conversion actually begins on January 1, 2022. Each conversion or rollover you make is subject to a separate five-year waiting period.
» Read more: Is a Roth IRA conversion right for you?
If you don’t wait the requisite five-year period from conversion to withdrawal, you may have to pay a 10% penalty, along with any income taxes owed. The same exceptions apply to the five-year rule of withdrawals of conversions as any other type of early distributions — see chart above for examples).
Five-year rule for beneficiaries
The final five-year rule applies to distributions to beneficiaries of a deceased IRA holder. As noted by the other two rules, death is an exception to penalties for early withdrawals — but to avoid ordinary taxes, beneficiaries still must abide by the two prior rules pertaining to the waiting period for making withdrawals of investment earnings or converted amounts.
» Read more: Learn about your options when you inherit an IRA
As a result, if you find yourself to be the beneficiary of a Roth IRA, double-check the timing of initial contributions, conversions or rollovers. Distributions of earnings and rollovers won’t necessarily qualify as tax-free if any of the five-year rules prohibit it, even though the original owner of the Roth IRA has died. Those amounts will be included in the beneficiary’s gross income and therefore subject to income taxes, just as if the money had gone to the original IRA owner instead.