If you’re fortunate enough to have an employer-sponsored retirement plan like a 401(k), you may be wondering how to prioritize that against individual account options, including a traditional or Roth IRA. All three of these retirement plans have tax advantages you don’t want to pass up.
You can — and in many cases, should — save in both a 401(k) and an IRA. But most people have a limited amount of money to put toward retirement each year, and both 401(k)s and IRAs have contribution limits. That means the order in which you contribute to these accounts is important.
Which comes first? Here’s a general guide:
401(k) with matching dollars is priority one
Some companies offer 401(k) matching programs, which contribute to your account as you do, up to a limit. That makes your decision easy: You’d never want to walk away from free money.
The most common arrangement is currently dollar for dollar up to the first 6% contributed, which means if you earn $50,000 and contribute $3,000 to your 401(k), your employer will do the same.
Your employer’s contributions to your 401(k) do not count toward the account’s annual contribution limit. In 2016 the limit is $18,000, or $24,000 if you’re 50 or older.
If you don’t get a 401(k) match, start with an IRA
401(k)s are known for being fairly expensive investment options.
These plans have high administrative costs for things like accounting and legal services, and the employer often passes those on to the participants. The investments themselves are limited, with an average of around 20 choices offered per plan, so while plan providers have a responsibility to keep costs reasonable, it’s much harder for investors to shop around for the lowest expense ratio.
That means if you don’t have an employer match, an IRA is generally a better first option. These accounts offer access to a virtually unlimited number and type of investments, so it’s fairly easy to minimize expense ratios with ETFs and index funds.
Traditional IRA vs. Roth IRA comes down to taxes
Both traditional and Roth IRAs allow contributions of $5,500 per year in 2016 ($6,500 if you’re 50 or older). They differ mainly in their tax treatment. A traditional IRA functions like a 401(k); you get a tax break when you contribute and pay the government its share when you make withdrawals.
A Roth IRA, on the other hand, is somewhat of a tax unicorn: Contributions aren’t tax-deductible, but distributions in retirement are completely tax-free, meaning participants in these plans never pay taxes on investment earnings. (Yes, you read that correctly.)
Most young people will want to choose a Roth IRA, because of that long time horizon for tax-free growth.
A Roth is also the best choice if you think your taxable income is lower now than it will be in retirement; many younger investors fall into this category, as their taxes are almost certainly destined to go up. (For more details about how to make this decision, check out NerdWallet’s full post on the subject.)
Income limits may apply
The Roth comes with one big caveat: You can make the full contribution to a Roth only if your modified adjusted gross income is less than $184,000 (as a joint filer) or $117,000 (as a single filer). The contribution limit then starts to phase out. If you earn above this amount, you can contribute as much as the IRS allows to the Roth and the remainder to a traditional IRA.
The traditional IRA has no income limits on contributions, but things get hazy when you’re also a participant in a 401(k): You may be limited in the amount of your traditional IRA contribution that is deductible, depending on your income. That doesn’t mean you can’t contribute, but the tax deduction is a big perk of this account.
The bottom line
Best providers for your IRA or Roth IRA
TD AMERITRADE: AMONG BEST OVERALL
TD Ameritrade is one of our picks for best overall IRA providers. The popular online broker has wide customer appeal for IRA account holders and beginner investors alike for several reasons: helpful customer service, a $0 minimum balance requirement and a large selection of commission-free exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and no-transaction-fee mutual funds. Advanced, active traders also gravitate to the company because of its two top-notch trading platforms — including widely renowned thinkorswim — and its research and data. The downside: The company’s trade commissions are on the high side at $9.99.
E-TRADE: NO ACCOUNT MINIMUM
E-trade is one of our picks for best providers with no account minimum for IRA accounts. One of the best-known online brokers, the company is loved by investors because of its user-friendly online experience on both its website and mobile app. E-Trade has a large selection of no-transaction-fee mutual funds and commission-free ETFs. Research and data are free, and E-Trade’s tiered commission structure means frequent traders can keep costs down.
WEALTHFRONT: GOOD FOR HANDS-OFF INVESTORS
Wealthfront, one of our top picks for hands-off IRA investors, was one of the first robo-advisors in the game. It remains one of the largest, and it regularly adds new features and tools for its investors. The company is a great option for IRA account holders who are looking for investment management, particularly beginners, because it waives its 0.25% account management fee on balances of $10,000 or less. Wealthfront has a $500 account minimum and invests its clients in a portfolio of ETFs with expense ratios that average a modest 0.12%.
BETTERMENT: NO MINIMUM, TIERED FEES
Betterment, our other top pick for hands-off investors, has carved out a place as the largest independent robo-advisor. It caters to the retirement market with innovative goal-based tools to help investors save more. The company requires no minimum investment and offers a tiered management fee that starts at 0.35% for balances under $10,000 (with auto-deposits of at least $100 a month). The fee drops to 0.25% on balances between $10,000 and $100,000; balances over $100,000 pay just 0.15%. Betterment’s portfolio of ETFs have expense ratios that range from 0.09% to 0.17%.