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2019-2020 Tax Brackets and Federal Income Tax Rates

There are seven federal income tax brackets. Here's what they are, how they work and how they affect you.
April 7, 2020
Income Taxes, Taxes
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There are seven federal tax brackets for the 2019 tax year: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% and 37%. Your bracket depends on your taxable income and filing status. These are the rates for taxes due in April 2020.

The first set of numbers below shows the brackets and rates that apply to the 2019 tax year and relate to the tax return you’ll file in 2020. The second set shows the tax brackets and federal income tax rates that apply to the 2020 tax year and relate to the tax return you’ll file in 2021.

(Tax brackets and rates for previous years are near the bottom of the page.)

2019 federal income tax brackets

(for taxes due in April 2020, or in October 2020 with an extension)

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $9,700$0 to $19,400$0 to $9,700$0 to $13,850
12%$9,701 to $39,475$19,401 to $78,950$9,701 to $39,475$13,851 to $52,850
22%$39,476 to $84,200$78,951 to $168,400$39,476 to $84,200$52,851 to $84,200
24%$84,201 to $160,725$168,401 to $321,450$84,201 to $160,725$84,201 to $160,700
32%$160,726 to $204,100$321,451 to $408,200$160,726 to $204,100$160,701 to $204,100
35%$204,101 to $510,300$408,201 to $612,350$204,101 to $306,175$204,101 to $510,300
37%$510,301 or more$612,351 or more$306,176 or more$510,301 or more

Expand the filing status that applies to you.

Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $9,70010% of taxable income
12%$9,701 to $39,475$970 plus 12% of the amount over $9,700
22%$39,476 to $84,200$4,543 plus 22% of the amount over $39,475
24%$84,201 to $160,725$14,382.50 plus 24% of the amount over $84,200
32%$160,726 to $204,100$32,748.50 plus 32% of the amount over $160,725
35%$204,101 to $510,300$46,628.50 plus 35% of the amount over $204,100
37%$510,301 or more$153,798.50 plus 37% of the amount over $510,300
Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $19,40010% of taxable income
12%$19,401 to $78,950$1,940 plus 12% of the amount over $19,400
22%$78,951 to $168,400$9,086 plus 22% of the amount over $78,950
24%$168,401 to $321,450$28,765 plus 24% of the amount over $168,400
32%$321,451 to $408,200$65,497 plus 32% of the amount over $321,450
35%$408,201 to $612,350$93,257 plus 35% of the amount over $408,200
37%$612,351 or more$164,709.50 plus 37% of the amount over $612,350
Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $9,70010% of taxable income
12%$9,701 to $39,475$970 plus 12% of the amount over $9,700
22%$39,476 to $84,200$4,543 plus 22% of the amount over $39,475
24%$84,201 to $160,725$14,382.50 plus 24% of the amount over $84,200
32%$160,726 to $204,100$32,748.50 plus 32% of the amount over $160,725
35%$204,101 to $306,175$46,628.50 plus 35% of the amount over $204,100
37%$306,176 or more$82,354.75 plus 37% of the amount over $306,175
Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $13,85010% of taxable income
12%$13,851 to $52,850$1,385 plus 12% of the amount over $13,850
22%$52,851 to $84,200$6,065 plus 22% of the amount over $52,850
24%$84,201 to $160,700$12,962 plus 24% of the amount over $84,200
32%$160,701 to $204,100$31,322 plus 32% of the amount over $160,700
35%$204,101 to $510,300$45,210 plus 35% of the amount over $204,100
37%$510,301 or more$152,380 plus 37% of the amount over $510,300

2020 federal income tax brackets

(for taxes due in April 2021)

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $9,875$0 to $19,750$0 to $9,875$0 to $14,100
12%$9,876 to $40,125$19,751 to $80,250$9,876 to $40,125$14,101 to $53,700
22%$40,126 to $85,525$80,251 to $171,050$40,126 to $85,525$53,701 to $85,500
24%$85,526 to $163,300$171,051 to $326,600$85,526 to $163,300$85,501 to $163,300
32%$163,301 to $207,350$326,601 to $414,700$163,301 to $207,350$163,301 to $207,350
35%$207,351 to $518,400$414,701 to $622,050$207,351 to $311,025$207,351 to $518,400
37%$518,401 or more$622,051 or more$311,026 or more$518,401 or more

Expand the filing status that applies to you.

Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $9,87510% of taxable income
12%$9,876 to $40,125$987.50 plus 12% of the amount over $9,875
22%$40,126 to $85,525$4,617.50 plus 22% of the amount over $40,125
24%$85,526 to $163,300$14,605.50 plus 24% of the amount over $85,525
32%$163,301 to $207,350$33,271.50 plus 32% of the amount over $163,300
35%$207,351 to $518,400$47,367.50 plus 35% of the amount over $207,350
37%$518,401 or more$156,235 plus 37% of the amount over $518,400
Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $19,75010% of taxable income
12%$19,751 to $80,250$1,975 plus 12% of the amount over $19,750
22%$80,251 to $171,050$9,235 plus 22% of the amount over $80,250
24%$171,051 to $326,600$29,211 plus 24% of the amount over $171,050
32%$326,601 to $414,700$66,543 plus 32% of the amount over $326,600
35%$414,701 to $622,050$94,735 plus 35% of the amount over $414,700
37%$622,051 or more$167,307.50 plus 37% of the amount over $622,050
Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $9,87510% of taxable income
12%$9,876 to $40,125$987.50 plus 12% of the amount over $9,875
22%$40,126 to $85,525$4,617.50 plus 22% of the amount over $40,125
24%$85,526 to $163,300$14,605.50 plus 24% of the amount over $85,525
32%$163,301 to $207,350$33,271.50 plus 32% of the amount over $163,300
35%$207,351 to $311,025$47,367.50 plus 35% of the amount over $207,350
37%$311,026 or more$83,653.75 plus 37% of the amount over $311,025
Tax rateTaxable income bracketTax owed
10%$0 to $14,10010% of taxable income
12%$14,101 to $53,700$1,410 plus 12% of the amount over $14,100
22%$53,701 to $85,500$6,162 plus 22% of the amount over $53,700
24%$85,501 to $163,300$13,158 plus 24% of the amount over $85,500
32%$163,301 to $207,350$31,830 plus 32% of the amount over $163,300
35%$207,351 to $518,400$45,926 plus 35% of the amount over $207,350
37%$518,401 or more$154,793.50 plus 37% of the amount over $518,400

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How tax brackets work

The United States has a progressive tax system, meaning people with higher taxable incomes pay higher federal income tax rates.

  • Being “in” a tax bracket doesn’t mean you pay that federal income tax rate on everything you make. The progressive tax system means that people with higher taxable incomes are subject to higher federal income tax rates, and people with lower taxable incomes are subject to lower federal income tax rates.
  • The government decides how much tax you owe by dividing your taxable income into chunks — also known as tax brackets — and each chunk gets taxed at the corresponding tax rate. The beauty of this is that no matter which bracket you’re in, you won’t pay that tax rate on your entire income.
  • Example #1: Let’s say you’re a single filer with $32,000 in taxable income. That puts you in the 12% tax bracket in 2019. But do you pay 12% on all $32,000? No. Actually, you pay only 10% on the first $9,700; you pay 12% on the rest. (Look at the tax brackets above to see the breakout.)

  • Example #2: If you had $50,000 of taxable income, you’d pay 10% on that first $9,700 and 12% on the chunk of income between $9,701 and $39,475. And then you’d pay 22% on the rest, because some of your $50,000 of taxable income falls into the 22% tax bracket. The total bill would be about $6,900 — about 14% of your taxable income, even though you’re in the 22% bracket. That 14% is called your effective tax rate.

  • That’s the deal only for federal income taxes. Your state might have different brackets, a flat income tax or no income tax at all.

What is a marginal tax rate?

Your marginal tax rate is the tax rate you would pay on one more dollar of taxable income. This typically equates to your tax bracket.

For example, if you’re a single filer with $30,000 of taxable income, you would be in the 12% tax bracket. If your taxable income went up by $1, you would pay 12% on that extra dollar too.

If you had $40,000 of taxable income, however, much of it would still fall within the 12% bracket, but the last few hundred dollars would land in the 22% tax bracket. Your marginal tax rate would be 22%.

How to get into a lower tax bracket and pay a lower federal income tax rate

Two common ways of reducing your tax bill are credits and deductions.

  • Tax credits directly reduce the amount of tax you owe; they don’t affect what bracket you’re in.
  • Tax deductions, on the other hand, reduce how much of your income is subject to taxes. Generally, deductions lower your taxable income by the percentage of your highest federal income tax bracket. So if you fall into the 22% tax bracket, a $1,000 deduction saves you $220.

In other words: Take all the tax deductions you can claim — they can reduce your taxable income and could kick you to a lower bracket, which means you pay a lower tax rate.

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Past years’ tax brackets

Curious how federal income tax brackets and rates have changed over the years? Take a look back.

2018 Federal Income Tax Brackets

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $9,525$0 to $19,050$0 to $9,525$0 to $13,600
12%$9,526 to $38,700$19,051 to $77,400$9,526 to $38,700$13,601 to $51,800
22%$38,701 to $82,500$77,401 to $165,000$38,701 to $82,500$51,801 to $82,500
24%$82,501 to $157,500$165,001 to $315,000$82,501 to $157,500$82,501 to $157,500
32%$157,501 to $200,000$315,001 to $400,000$157,501 to $200,000$157,501 to $200,000
35%$200,001 to $500,000$400,001 to $600,000$200,001 to $300,000$200,001 to $500,000
37%$500,001 or more$600,001 or more$300,001 or more$500,001 or more

2017 Federal Income Tax Brackets

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $9,325$0 to $18,650$0 to $9,325$0 to $13,350
15%$9,326 to $37,950$18,651 to $75,900$9,326 to $37,950$13,351 to $50,800
25%$37,951 to $91,900$75,901 to $153,100$37,951 to $76,550$50,801 to $131,200
28%$91,901 to $191,650$153,101 to $233,350$76,551 to $116,675$131,201 to $212,500
33%$191,651 to $416,700$233,351 to $416,700$116,676 to $208,350$212,501 to $416,700
35%$416,701 to $418,400$416,701 to $470,700$208,351 to $235,350$416,701 to $444,550
39.6%$418,401 or more$470,701 or more$235,351 or more$444,551 or more

2016 Federal Income Tax Brackets

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $9,275$0 to $18,550$0 to $9,275$0 to $13,250
15%$9,276 to $37,650$18,550 to $75,300$9,275 to $37,650$13,250 to $50,400
25%$37,650 to $91,150$75,300 to $151,900$37,650 to $75,950$50,400 to $130,150
28%$91,150 to $190,150$151,900 to $231,450$75,950 to $115,725$130,150 to $210,800
33%$190,150 to $413,350$231,450 to $413,350$115,725 to $206,675$210,800 to $413,350
35%$413,350 to $415,050$413,350 to $466,950$206,675 to $233,475$413,350 to $441,000
39.6%$415,050 or more$466,950 or more$233,475 or more$441,000 or more

2015 Federal Income Tax Brackets

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $9,225$0 to $18,450$0 to $9,225$0 to $13,150
15%$9,226 to $37,450$18,451 to $74,900$9,226 to $37,450$13,151 to $50,200
25%$37,451 to $90,750$74,901 to $151,200$37,451 to $75,600$50,201 to $129,600
28%$90,751 to $189,300$151,201 to $230,450$75,601 to $115,225$129,601 to $209,850
33%$189,301 to $411,500$230,451 to $411,500$115,226 to $205,750$209,851 to $411,500
35%$411,501 to $413,200$411,501 to $464,850$205,751 to $232,425$411,501 to $439,000
39.6%$413,201 or more$464,851 or more$232,426 or more$439,001 or more

2014 Federal Income Tax Brackets

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $9,075$0 to $18,150$0 to $9,075$0 to $12,950
15%$9,076 to $36,900$18,151 to $73,800$9,076 to $36,900$12,951 to $49,400
25%$36,901 to $89,350$73,801 to $148,850$36,901 to $74,425$49,401 to $127,550
28%$89,351 to $186,350$148,851 to $226,850$74,426 to $113,425$127,551 to $206,600
33%$186,351 to $405,100$226,851 to $405,100$113,426 to $202,550$206,601 to $405,100
35%$405,101 to $406,750$405,101 to $457,600$202,551 to $228,800$405,101 to $432,200
39.6%$406,751 or more$457,601 or more$228,801 or more$432,201 or more

2013 Federal Income Tax Brackets

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $8,925$0 to $17,850$0 to $8,925$0 to $12,750
15%$8,926 to $36,250$17,851 to $72,500$8,926 to $36,250$12,751 to $48,600
25%$36,251 to $87,850$72,501 to $146,400$36,251 to $73,200$48,601 to $125,450
28%$87,851 to $183,250$146,401 to $223,050$73,201 to $111,525$125,451 to $203,150
33%$183,251 to $398,350$223,051 to $398,350$111,526 to $199,175 $203,151 to $398,350
35%$398,351 to $400,000$398,351 to $450,000$199,176 to $225,000$398,351 to $425,000
39.6%$400,001 or more$450,001 or more$225,001 or more$425,001 or more

2012 Federal Income Tax Brackets

Tax rateSingleMarried, filing jointlyMarried, filing separatelyHead of household
10%$0 to $8,700$0 to $17,400$0 to $8,700$0 to $12,400
15%$8,701 to $35,350$17,401 to $70,700$8,701 to $35,350$12,401 to $47,350
25%$35,351 to $85,650$70,701 to $142,700$35,351 to $71,350$47,351 to $122,300
28%$85,651 to $178,650$142,701 to $217,450$71,351 to $108,725$122,301 to $198,050
33%$178,651 to $388,350$217,451 to $388,350$108,726 to $194,175$198,051 to $388,350
35%$388,351 or more$388,351 or more$194,1756 or more$388,351 or more

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