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2023-2024 Tax Brackets and Federal Income Tax Rates

There are seven federal income tax brackets for 2023 and 2024. Your tax rate is determined by your income and tax filing status.
Tina Orem
Sabrina Parys
By Sabrina Parys and  Tina Orem 
Updated
Reviewed by Lei Han

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In 2023 and 2024, there are seven federal income tax rates and brackets: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%. Taxable income and filing status determine which federal tax rates apply to you and how much in taxes you'll owe that year.

These federal tax rates will remain the same until 2025 as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. However, the IRS can adjust income thresholds for each federal tax bracket each year to reflect inflation

.

» Ready to crunch the numbers? Estimate your refund or bill with NerdWallet's tax calculator

2023 tax brackets and income tax rates

The tax tables below apply to income earned in 2023, which is reported on tax returns due by April 15, 2024, or October 15, 2024, with a tax extension.

Tax brackets 2023

Tax rate

Single filers

Married filing jointly

Married filing separately

Head of household

10%

$0 to $11,000

$0 to $22,000

$0 to $11,000

$0 to $15,700

12%

$11,001 to $44,725

$22,001 to $89,450

$11,001 to $44,725

$15,701 to $59,850

22%

$44,726 to $95,375

$89,451 to $190,750

$44,726 to $95,375

$59,851 to $95,350

24%

$95,376 to $182,100

$190,751 to $364,200

$95,376 to $182,100

$95,351 to $182,100

32%

$182,101 to $231,250

$364,201 to $462,500

$182,101 to $231,250

$182,101 to $231,250

35%

$231,251 to $578,125

$462,501 to $693,750

$231,251 to $346,875

$231,251 to $578,100

37%

$578,126 or more

$693,751 or more

$346,876 or more

$578,101 or more

2023 tax brackets for each filing status

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $11,000.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,001 to $44,725.

$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000.

22%

$44,726 to $95,375.

$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725.

24%

$95,376 to $182,100.

$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375.

32%

$182,101 to $231,250.

$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100.

35%

$231,251 to $578,125.

$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250.

37%

$578,126 or more.

$174,238.25 plus 37% of the amount over $578,125.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $22,000.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$22,001 to $89,450.

$2,200 plus 12% of the amount over $22,000.

22%

$89,451 to $190,750.

$10,294 plus 22% of the amount over $89,450.

24%

$190,751 to $364,200.

$32,580 plus 24% of the amount over $190,750.

32%

$364,201 to $462,500.

$74,208 plus 32% of the amount over $364,200.

35%

$462,501 to $693,750.

$105,664 plus 35% of the amount over $462,500.

37%

$693,751 or more.

$186,601.50 + 37% of the amount over $693,750.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $11,000.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,001 to $44,725.

$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000.

22%

$44,726 to $95,375.

$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725.

24%

$95,376 to $182,100.

$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375.

32%

$182,101 to $231,250.

$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100.

35%

$231,251 to $346,875.

$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250.

37%

$346,876 or more.

$93,300.75 plus 37% of the amount over $346,875.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $15,700.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$15,701 to $59,850.

$1,570 plus 12% of the amount over $15,700.

22%

$59,851 to $95,350.

$6,868 plus 22% of the amount over $59,850.

24%

$95,351 to $182,100.

$14,678 plus 24% of the amount over $95,350.

32%

$182,101 to $231,250.

$35,498 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100.

35%

$231,251 to $578,100.

$51,226 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250.

37%

$578,101 or more.

$172,623.50 plus 37% of the amount over $578,100.

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2024 tax brackets and income tax rates

There are seven income tax rates for the 2024 tax year, ranging from 10% to 37%. The 2024 tax brackets apply to income earned this year, which is reported on tax returns filed in 2025.

Tax brackets 2024

Tax rate

Single filers

Married filing jointly

Married filing separately

Head of household

10%

$0 to $11,600

$0 to $23,200

$0 to $11,600

$0 to $16,550

12%

$11,601 to $47,150

$23,201 to $94,300

$11,601 to $47,150

$16,551 to $63,100

22%

$47,151 to $100,525

$94,301 to $201,050

$47,151 to $100,525

$63,101 to $100,500

24%

$100,526 to $191,950

$201,051 to $383,900

$100,526 to $191,950

$100,501 to $191,950

32%

$191,951 to $243,725

$383,901 to $487,450

$191,951 to $243,725

$191,951 to $243,700

35%

$243,726 to $609,350

$487,451 to $731,200

$243,726 to $365,600

$243,701 to $609,350

37%

$609,351 or more

$731,201 or more

$365,601 or more

$609,350 or more

2024 tax brackets for each filing status

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $11,600.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,601 to $47,150.

$1,160 plus 12% of the amount over $11,600.

22%

$47,151 to $100,525.

$5,426 plus 22% of the amount over $47,150.

24%

$100,526 to $191,950.

$17,168.50 plus 24% of the amount over $100,525.

32%

$191,951 to $243,725.

$39,110.50 plus 32% of the amount over $191,950.

35%

$243,726 to $609,350.

$55,678.50 plus 35% of the amount over $243,725.

37%

$609,351 or more.

$183,647.25 plus 37% of the amount over $609,350.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $23,200.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$23,201 to $94,300.

$2,320 plus 12% of the amount over $23,200.

22%

$94,301 to $201,050.

$10,852 plus 22% of the amount over $94,300.

24%

$201,051 to $383,900.

$34,337 plus 24% of the amount over $201,050.

32%

$383,901 to $487,450.

$78,221 plus 32% of the amount over $383,900.

35%

$487,451 to $731,200.

$111,357 plus 35% of the amount over $487,450.

37%

$731,201 or more.

$196,669.50 + 37% of the amount over $731,200.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $11,600.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,601 to $47,150.

$1,160 plus 12% of the amount over $11,600.

22%

$47,151 to $100,525.

$5,426 plus 22% of the amount over $47,150.

24%

$100,526 to $191,950.

$17,168.50 plus 24% of the amount over $100,525.

32%

$191,951 to $243,725.

$39,110.50 plus 32% of the amount over $191,950.

35%

$243,726 to $365,600

$55,678.50 plus 35% of the amount over $243,725.

37%

$365,601 or more.

$98,334.75 plus 37% of the amount over $365,600.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $16,550.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$16,551 to $63,100.

$1,655 plus 12% of the amount over $16,500.

22%

$63,101 to $100,500.

$7,241 plus 22% of the amount over $63,100.

24%

$100,501 to $191,950.

$15,469 plus 24% of the amount over $100,500.

32%

$191,951 to $243,700.

$37,417 plus 32% of the amount over $191,950.

35%

$243,701 to $609,350.

$53,977 plus 35% of the amount over $243,700.

37%

$609,350 or more.

$181,954.50 plus 37% of the amount over $609,350.

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How income tax brackets work

1. Federal income tax rates are progressive

The U.S. has a progressive tax system. Broadly, this means that the government decides how much tax you owe by dividing your taxable income into chunks — also known as tax brackets — and each chunk gets taxed at the corresponding tax rate. The highest tax rate, the marginal rate, applies to only a portion of your income.

The progressive tax system also means that people with higher taxable incomes are subject to higher federal income tax rates, and people with lower taxable incomes are subject to lower federal income tax rates. The beauty of tax brackets is that no matter which bracket you’re in, you won’t pay that tax rate on your entire income.

Federal tax brackets example: If you had $50,000 of taxable income in 2023 as a single filer, you’d pay 10% on that first $11,000 and 12% on the chunk of income between $11,001 and $44,725. Then you’d pay 22% on the rest because some of your $50,000 of taxable income falls into the 22% tax bracket. The total bill would be about $6,300 — about 13% of your taxable income — even though you're in the 22% bracket. That 13% is your effective tax rate.

2. State income taxes may work differently than federal income taxes

States may handle taxes differently than the federal government. Your state might have different brackets, or it might altogether use a different system. Colorado, for example, has a flat tax rate of 4.4% on taxable income, and some states, such as Wyoming, don't have a state income tax.

3. Federal income tax brackets are adjusted annually for inflation

Each year, all the income tax brackets — the window of income where a tax rate ends and begins — are updated to reflect the current rate of inflation. These tweaks, formally known as inflation adjustments, are a critical part of the tax code.

They can help prevent taxpayers from ending up in a higher tax bracket as their cost of living rises, a scenario called “bracket creep." Tax bracket adjustments can also lower taxes for those whose compensation has not kept up with inflation.

Tax inflation adjustment example

  • In 2023, a single filer making $45,000 of taxable income pays a 10% tax rate on $11,000 of their earnings, a 12% tax rate on the portion of the earnings between $11,001 and $44,725, and a 22% tax rate on the remaining $275 that falls into that final tax bracket.

  • Assuming this taxpayer's income does not change in 2024, they will now pay 10% on earnings up to $11,600 and 12% on the rest. In other words, they will no longer pay 22% on any part of their income. This is because the upper end of the 12% tax bracket has been updated from $44,725 to $47,150, which allows this taxpayer to shelter more of their income from a higher tax rate.

What is a marginal tax rate?

The marginal tax rate is the tax rate paid on the last dollar of taxable income. It typically equates to the highest tax bracket.

For example, if you're a single filer in 2023 with $35,000 of taxable income, you would be in the 12% tax bracket. If your taxable income went up by $1, you would pay 12% on that extra dollar, too.

If you had $45,000 of taxable income, however, most of it would still fall within the 12% bracket, but the last few hundred dollars would land in the 22% tax bracket. Your marginal tax rate would then be 22%.

What is an effective tax rate?

Your effective tax rate is the percentage of your taxable income that you pay in taxes. To determine your effective tax rate, divide your total tax owed (line 16) on Form 1040 by your total taxable income (line 15).

How to reduce taxes owed

Two common ways of reducing your tax bill are credits and deductions.

  • Tax credits can reduce your tax bill on a dollar-for-dollar basis; they don't affect what bracket you're in.

  • Tax deductions, on the other hand, reduce how much of your income is subject to taxes. Generally, deductions lower your taxable income by the percentage of your highest federal income tax bracket. So, if you fall into the 22% tax bracket, a $1,000 deduction could save you $220.

In other words, take all the tax deductions you can claim. Deductions can reduce your taxable income and could kick you to a lower bracket, which means you pay a lower tax rate.

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