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Income Too High for a Roth IRA? Try sneaking in the backdoor

Hi Joanna,

I do not qualify for a traditional IRA tax deduction because my employer offers a retirement plan and I make more than $69,000.

Should I still contribute to a traditional IRA? What are the pros and cons of contributing after tax income to a traditional IRA versus opening a brokerage account?

If I do contribute, am I still limited to the $5,500 cap for under 50 year olds. What is the penalty if I exceed this cap?


Billy T.


Hi Billy,

Thanks for your question.  You are correct that your income of $69,000+ prevents you from deducting contributions to a Traditional IRA.  However, you still have two options with valuable tax advantages.

1.  Roth IRA

A single person with income less than $112,000 can contribute the full amount to a Roth IRA.  You can see the full table of income limits here.  If your tax rate stays the same, a Traditional IRA is financially equivalent to a Roth IRA with the only difference being when you pay taxes.  Roth IRAs pay taxes up front while Traditional IRAs pay taxes on withdrawals.

Roth vs Traditional Equivalence
Same Tax Rate Increasing Tax Rates Decreasing Tax Rates
Roth = Traditional Roth > Traditional Roth < Traditional
Roth Traditional Roth Traditional Roth Traditional
Pre-tax Investment $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000
Current Tax Rate 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25%
Initial Investment $3,750 $5,000 $3,750 $5,000 $3,750 $5,000
Annual Rate of Return 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8%
Time (years)  30  30  30  30  30  30
Account value at retirement $37,735 $50,313 $37,735 $50,313 $37,735 $50,313
Future Tax Rate 25% 25% 30% 30% 20% 20%
Taxes Owed $0 $12,578 $0 $15,094 $0 $10,063
Net at Retirement $37,735 $37,735 $37,735 $35,219 $37,735 $40,251

2.  Non-deductible Traditional IRA

You don’t say how high your income is, but I would recommend that you contribute to a Roth IRA if you are eligible.

If your income exceeds the limits to contribute to a Roth IRA, you still have the option of doing a Non-deductible Traditional IRA, as you suggest in your question.  For those who don’t know, the way this works is that you contribute to a Traditional IRA, but you are unable to deduct the contribution from your taxes.  Because you have already paid taxes on this money, your investment has a “cost basis” of the amount you contributed.  You must track this cost basis and report it on your taxes each year.  When you withdraw money from the account in retirement, you pay taxes only on your investment gains.

The “pro” of contributing to a non-deductible IRA is that there can be tax savings over contributing to a taxable brokerage account.  Where is the tax savings if you paid taxes on the contributions up front and have to pay taxes on the investment gains at retirement?  It’s tricky, but the answer is that deferring the payment of taxes in this type of account results in lower total taxation because your investment has an opportunity to compound before being taxed.

Example:  If you invest a dollar and earn 20%, you have $1.20.  If there is a 50% tax on gains, you are left with only $1.10.  If you repeat this the following year you would have $1.21 (20% of $1.10 = $0.22; 50% tax = $0.11; Total = $1.10 + $0.22 – $0.11 = $1.21).  What would happen if you could have deferred taxes until the end of those 2 years?  Your dollar would become $1.20 after the first year.  You could reinvest the FULL amount of $1.20, not the after tax amount of $1.10.  So at the end of the second year you would have $1.44 before taxes.  You would then have to pay the 50% tax on your cumulative investment gains of $0.44 so your tax would be $0.22.  You would be left with $1.22 ($1.44 minus $0.22), which is greater than $1.21.  This may not seem like much, but this example is with only two years of compounding.  Many retirement savers have 30 or more years to invest for retirement so the difference can be substantial.

Here’s another example of the value of tax deferment via a non-deductible IRA:

After-tax Retirement Payoffs of Equivalent Investments in Different Account Types
Roth Traditional Non-Deductible Traditional Taxable (Middle Income) Taxable (High Income)
Pre-tax Investment $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000
Current Tax Rate 25% 25% 25% 25% 25%
Initial Investment $3,750 $5,000 $3,750 $3,750 $3,750
Annual Rate of Return 8% 8% 8% 8% 8%
Time (years)  30  30  30  30 30
Account value at retirement $37,735 $50,313 $37,735 $32,831 $33,052
Future Tax Rate 25% 25% 25% 15% 23.8%
Taxes Owed $0 $12,578 $8,496 $4,645 $6,974
Net at Retirement $37,735 $37,735 $29,239 $30,069 $26,078
*Assumes 2% Dividend Yield; Future Tax Rate = Capital Gains Tax Rate for Taxable Accounts (15-23.8% depending on income) OR Income Tax Rate Estimate of 25% for IRAs

The main “con” of contributing to a non-deductible IRA (or any tax-advantaged retirement account) is that there are penalties for withdrawing the money prior to retirement so you have limited access to the money relative to a taxable brokerage account.  Another thing to consider is that gains in a taxable brokerage account will be taxed at the capital gains tax rate, which is less than the ordinary income tax rate that will be accessed on the gains in your non-deductible IRA.  All of this is moot, however, because of the backdoor Roth IRA.

The Backdoor Roth IRA

While a Non-Deductible Traditional IRA is often better than a taxable account, there’s actually an even better option for high earners.  Starting in 2010, the government removed the income limits for IRA conversions.  This means that anyone, regardless of income, can convert a Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA by completing the conversion process and paying taxes on the pre-tax Traditional investment and any gains.  So if you are not eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA because of a high income, you can contribute to a Non-Deductible Traditional IRA and then immediately convert it to a Roth IRA. You will only have to pay taxes on any increases in value of your investment between the time you make the contribution (the “cost basis” amount) and your conversion, so if you do this immediately your tax bill should be zero.

So to summarize:  Everyone can do a Roth IRA regardless of income, either directly or through the Backdoor Roth IRA method.  I would suggest contributing to a Roth IRA or Traditional IRA (depending on your view of where taxes are going) because the tax advantages are significantly greater than those of a Non-Deductible IRA or a Taxable Brokerage Account.

Step-by-Step Guide to Opening a Backdoor Roth IRA

The Pro-Rata Rule

Backdoor IRAs sound great, right?  Yes, but there is one big catch.  The IRS requires that all rollovers from Traditional to Roth IRAs be done pro-rata.  This means that if you have $90k in deductible contributions and $10k in non-deductible contributions, you cannot choose to rollover the $10k.  If you rolled over $10k (10% of your total account value), the government would treat this as you rolling over 10% of the deductible portion ($9k) and 10% of the non-deductible portion ($1k), which wasn’t your goal at all.  The only way to rollover the full non-deductible contribution is to rollover ALL of your traditional assets.  This may make sense if you believe tax rates will go up in the future, but be prepared for a potentially large tax bill that you must pay immediately.  Also, keep in mind that workplace SEP IRAs are also considered Traditional IRA assets for purposes of calculating pro-rata rollovers.

Contribution Limits

Regardless of whether you contribute to a Traditional IRA, Roth IRA, or Non-Deductible Traditional IRA, the limits stay the same.  Those under 50 may contribute up to $5,500 in 2013, while those over 50 may contribute $6,500.  If you contribute more than is allowed, the government will charge you a 6% excise tax.  If you do this accidentally, you have until the date you file your taxes for the year to withdraw an over-contribution and any earnings on that contribution without penalty.  You also have the option of applying this year’s over-contribution to the following year, as long as you don’t exceed that year’s limit.

Accidentally exceeding the limit is easier than it sounds.  In addition to contributing more than the $5,500 or $6,500 limit, you can also “exceed the limit” by contributing anything to a Roth IRA if your income exceeds the strict limits.  So if someone receives a much larger December bonus than expected, their Roth IRA contributions of $5,500 or less may all be above the limit and subject to the excise tax.

Choosing the Right Roth IRA

If you decide to go ahead with a Backdoor Roth IRA, be sure to think carefully about your preferred asset classes so that you invest with a brokerage that best meets your needs.  Long-term passive mutual fund investors should choose an account like Scottrade with more than 3,000 no transaction fee funds and low expense ratios on index funds (as low as 0.095%).  If you trade stocks in your IRA, look for an account with access to top company research and analysis software, like TD Ameritrade.

Learn more about Roth IRA account options here


Other Articles by Joanna on Backdoor Roth IRA Conversions and the Pro Rate Rule:


About the Author

Joanna D. Pratt, CFA is an experienced institutional investor.  She holds a bachelor’s degree in economics and certificate in finance from Princeton and an MBA from Stanford.

Have a question about investing or retirement? Ask An Advisor here.


Photo credit:  Burglar behind door by Shutterstock

  • Guillaume

    The argument that deferring the tax makes a difference seems incorrect. If you assume that the tax rate “now” is the same as the tax rate “Then”, trad IRA makes no difference. And compounding changes nothing to that. I think the error is that the example assumes that you would be taxed on the the gains yearly, which is not true. The only benefit of a non-Trad IRA that I can think of is if the tax rate in the future is lower than the tax rate now. And that all depends on how you intend to retire and what the government will do then.

  • AK


    I normally contribute to Roth IRA lumpsum of $5K for previous year before April 15th of this year. While filling taxes (married jointly) for 2012, I realized that my wife’s and mine combined salary is at $185K which is above the limit of $183K. Could you please advise on what options I have to invest in Roth IRA. I have been doing this dilligently for last 5 years and so far my returns have been at 47%. I really don’t want to miss out on the contribution.


  • yasu

    Hi Joanna: I appreciate your informative and well-written IRA article. It helped me understand the difference between Roth vs traditional once I hit retirement.
    Question: I am self-employed. I used to put money in Roth IRA but then I started to make more than the limit so I stopped. I now read your article about the backdoor Roth. I put the max for self-employed in an SEP IRA: 50k. So now (since 2010 per your article) I can put $5000-5500 (2012,13) into this backdoor Roth. Do I need to reduce my SEP contribution to 45k to set this up or are they separate IRAs? I have 20+ yrs til retirement. Thx for any advice in advance.

  • sasasun

    Hello Joanna,

    Thank you for this Roth backdoor article. I got it to read while searching for the “non-deductible IRA” related online. Actually it got my point, a “much larger December bonus than expected” as you mentioned did happen to my husband. Since he has his employer-sponsored plan so we have contributed a spousal traditional IRA every year under my name for a long while . Last year, when I filed 2011 tax return and made my 2011 contribution, I also deposited my 2012 contribution $6000 together into an annuity account. Now, After my CPA filed my 2012 tax return, she told me my household income is over the limit and the 2012 contribution became non-deductible… Since it is already mixed with before tax money, what should I do now ? Can I hold an IRA account with both deductibe and non-deductible money ? Does it consider “excess” ? please advise, thank you very much !

  • Erik

    how are you modeling the difference between non-deductible IRA and taxable account?

    Presumably you invest the taxable account in a way to minimize and defer capital gains taxes. If you do that “perfectly” (eg, buy and hold a growth stock that pays no dividends), you defer your taxes for 30 years in the taxable account – just like in the non-deductible IRA – but only pay cap gains tax at withdrawal, therefore beating the IRA.

    The other extreme is that you pay taxes each year on all the gains from that year, deferring no taxes. This would be the worst possible way to manage the account.

    In practice, someones account will probably fall somewhere in the middle – deferring the majority of their taxes, if not for the 30 years, at least for many years at a time.

    Is your note about “2% dividend yield” implying that your model is paying taxes on 2% of the annual gain each year, then reinvesting the after-tax dollars, while the other 6% gain is left to accrue?

  • Elizabeth Gallagher

    Hi there. Thanks for posting this informative article about Backdoor ROth IRA’s. But I’m still confused. Our income is too high and I have always made the non deductible contribution to a Traditional IRA. I set up a new Roth IRA and put $6000 into it (I am 52). When and how do i pay taxes on this amount? My traditional IRAs are worth about $200K. I’m using Turbo Tax and trying to figure this out on my own.

  • Richard

    If you have a mixed traditional IRA (pre and post tax $s) can you move the pre taxed to your employee sponsored plan leaving only the basis in the tIRA then do the conversion to Roth to avoid the pro-rata rule?

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  • Gene

    Do NOT contribute Nondeductible monies to a Traditional IRA!!! When you want to recover the money, you can only recover the percentage of the NonDeductible money vs. the deductible money portion of your total IRA monies. If you have $200K in deductible traditional IRA’s and $10K in nondeductible traditional IRA’s, you can only ‘write off” 5% of the total IRA money you withdraw each year after 70 !/2. What about the IRA monies you never access because you die? Hopefully your heirs will know enough to continue to treat that 5% as non taxable, but I doubt it.

    Funding Traditional IRA’s with nondeductible monies are akin to simply handing over your money to the taxman. If you have an extra $10K, put it into your non-IRA investment fund or take your wife on a nice vacation…

  • kathmandu

    what if you earn more than 115k ? is there anyplace we can invest ?

  • Joanna Pratt

    Yes, anyone of any income level can do a backdoor Roth IRA. Here is a step by step guide:

  • sdr984

    You had me at backdoor

  • craig

    Is there any way around the pro-rata rule? For example, if I have a traditional IRA with Vanguard, can I open a new IRA with another company for my non-deductible contributions, and then just roll that new IRA over to a ROTH, as it would be 100% non-deductible contributions?

  • craig

    What about if I do it via my wife? She has a ROTH IRA today, but no traditional IRA. She doesn’t work, but can I do a traditional spousal IRA contribution (non-deductible), and then convert that from her traditional IRA (which would only contain the money we deposited) to her ROTH, which would give me the same net result, just that the money would be held in my wife’s ROTH IRA instead of mine? Or would the pro-rata rule somehow take into account my IRA holdings and treat those as joint funds? (The IRA funds are in my name, and my wife is the beneficiary.)

  • Pratima Boinepalli

    Hi Joanna

    We make more than the income limit for ROTH contribution. My husband has a retirement plan ( 401 and 403b through his employer and I have no retirement plan. What is a good way to contribute to a ROTH. Can I do a non deductible Traditional and convert it to ROTH. Does it matter on whose name it is , me or my husband.

  • Joanna Pratt

    The money you put into your Roth IRA was already taxed when you earned it. You declare the contribution on your tax return the following April, but no additional taxes are owed. The contributions to a Traditional IRA, by contrast, are tax deductible so you get the taxes back that you paid on the contributions when you earned them by filing your tax return.

  • Joanna Pratt

    Many employer plans have rules on what can be transferred in, but if your non-IRA work plan will allow a partial transfer of only deductible traditional assets, leaving you with only non-deductible assets in your traditional IRA, then yes, in theory that would be a way to avoid the pro-rata rule.

  • rrgg

    I have 2 scenarios. (a) I contribute to a Traditional IRA now and convert it to Roth. Then next January I do the same thing – contribute to a new Traditional IRA and convert it. (b) Or I contribute to a Traditional IRA now, then contribute again in January. In March 2014 I convert the 1 account all at once. I think both cases are allowed, but (b) seems like a little less hassle. Or have I misunderstood? Or maybe (a) is less hassle on tax forms. Thanks.

  • Ken

    So once I convert a traditional IRA over to a Roth am I allowed to to contribute to that Roth the following year? Or will I have to create another Traditional IRA and convert year after year?

  • Frank

    I’d like to contribute the full $6,500 to my Roth IRA at the beginning of the year for 2014. What happens if 6 months down the road I get a raise and it puts me slightly over the cap? Will it be as easy as just applying the overage to the subsequent year’s reduced amount? I’m brand new to this so I’m really worried about making an expensive mistake.

  • cio

    My husband and I each file married filing separately. How can I benefit most from an IRA contribution since it seems that neither of us can contribute to a Roth?

  • Kevin

    can we do multiple conversions in a single year ? one now before apr-15 going against 2013 contrib limits and another one later in the year for 2014 ?

  • q22222

    What to do with $2 million in a 401K? Need to find a tax loss or tax credit generator that matches up in the year the conversion is made to a Roth any ideas?

  • greatchelly

    I contributed $5k on 2011to a roth IRA which I am not qualified because of income limits. What do I do now?

  • whitehatseo1


  • Joanna Pratt

    Thanks for your comment Guillaume. It can be counterintuitive, but there actually are real tax advantages to contributing to a non-deductible IRA. You are correct that if there were no taxes paid each year then there would be no advantage. But almost all investments pay some form of dividends or capital gains at some point. The analysis does not assume that you would be taxed yearly on gains. It assumes only that there would be a small dividend yield that would be taxable upon payment. This is what makes the non-deductible IRA advantageous over a taxable account.

    However, as long as the Backdoor Roth IRA remains available, investors should choose that over the non-deductible IRA.

  • JoWallet

    Given your high income, a backdoor Roth IRA is your only option for contributing to a Roth IRA. I’ve posted a step-by-step how to guide here:

  • JoWallet

    It is fine to have both pre and post tax dollars in the same Traditional account. Just be sure to track the basis so you don’t get taxed twice on the same money. Full answer here:

  • Joanna Pratt

    No, you do not need to reduce your SEP contribution. You can contribute the full amount to both accounts, but your $5,500 traditional contribution will not be deductible due to your high income. Be careful doing a backdoor Roth IRA. You will need to rollover ALL traditional IRA assets, not just the non-deductible portion. Full answer here:

  • Joanna Pratt

    That’s exactly right Erik. The model is assuming a 2% dividend yield, meaning that capital gains taxes are paid on the 2% dividend and the after-tax dividends reinvested, while the other 6% capital gains are not realized and are therefore not taxed until withdrawal.

  • JS

    The taxable column in Table 2 still seems incorrect in that it assumes the withdrawals would be taxed as income (25%) and not as capital gains (about 5%). That being the case, the taxable account would beat the NDIRA by about $2000 and would afford more liquidity as well. The Roth benefit relative to the taxable account is really just the savings on capital gain taxes on earnings, though its true that this can affect compounding as well as withdrawals, depending on the investment mix.

  • Joanna Pratt

    Great catch! We’ve updated the table to reflect capital gains rates rather than ordinary income rates for the taxable account. Unfortunately, capital gains rates aren’t much better than ordinary income tax rates (15% to 23.8% depending on income) so the taxable account still underperforms the non-deductible IRA for high earners. For earners in middle income brackets, the two are roughly equivalent. Assumptions about dividend yields and holding periods would make one better than the other in different scenarios.

    Fortunately, a backdoor Roth IRA handily beats both the taxable and non-deductible IRA accounts so we would recommend going with the Roth.

  • Joanna Pratt

    Actually Gene, it’s quite easy to keep track of deductible vs. non-deductible contributions. If you use tax software like TurboTax or H&R Block, it will be completely tracked for you if you enter your new contributions correctly each year (which you need to do for current year tax purposes). If you do your taxes by hand, you just need to keep a copy of your tax records.

    The reason you can only “write off” 5% in your example is because you’ve only paid taxes on 5% so you still owe taxes on the other 95%. Avoiding contributing to a non-deductible IRA would not make that other 95% any less taxable and you would miss the potential benefits of tax-deferment on the non-deductible portion. As the article states, you need to consider a number of factors to determine whether a non-deductible IRA or taxable account is better. The taxable account does not beat the non-deductible IRA in all scenarios.

    While I do not agree with your reasoning, I do agree with the conclusion that non-deductible IRAs are not the way to go since virtually everyone has access to Roth IRAs via the “backdoor” option. This offers substantially greater tax benefits than a non-deductible IRA.

  • Joanna Pratt

    Unfortunately there is no way around the pro-rata rule. You must consider all Traditional assets held at all companies when calculating your pro-rata tax liability.

    More details here:

  • Joanna Pratt

    You and your husband can each contribute up to $5500 to a non-deductible Traditional IRA and then convert it to a Roth IRA. The name does not matter and you can do one in each of your names if you want. If you have any other Traditional IRA assets, the pro-rata rule will apply.

  • Joanna Pratt

    This should be okay. The IRS Form treats assets as belonging to individuals for the pro-rata rule, even if filing a joint tax return.

  • Joanna Pratt

    You would have to contribute to a Traditional IRA the following year and convert it again. Many companies (Vanguard does this) leave your old Traditional IRA open even with zero balance so it’s actually just a matter of contributing to the empty Traditional IRA from last year and converting again with a simple form.

  • Maxime Rieman

    I’m sorry, but Joanna is no longer available to provide an answer to your question. If you would like free advice and an answer from an RIA, please try our Ask an Advisor service here:

    Or, if you would like an answer from a member of NerdWallet’s Investing team, please let me know in a comment below.

  • Maxime Rieman

    Hi Frank,
    I’m sorry, but Joanna is no longer available to provide an answer to your question. If you would like free advice and an answer from an RIA, please try our Ask an Advisor service here:
    Or, if you would like an answer from a member of NerdWallet’s Investing team, please let me know in a comment below.

  • Maxime Rieman

    Hi CIO,
    I’m sorry, but Joanna is no longer available to provide an answer to your question. If you would like free advice and an answer from an RIA, please try our Ask an Advisor service here:
    Or, if you would like an answer from a member of NerdWallet’s Investing team, please let me know in a comment below.

  • Maxime Rieman

    Hi RRGG,
    I’m sorry, but Joanna is no longer available to provide an answer to your question. If you would like free advice and an answer from an RIA, please try our Ask an Advisor service here:
    Or, if you would like an answer from a member of NerdWallet’s Investing team, please let me know in a comment below.