7 Popular Vanguard Index Funds: What They Are and How to Invest
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Vanguard index funds pioneered a whole new way of building wealth for the average investor.
What are Vanguard index funds?
Vanguard index funds are a type of mutual fund where thousands of investors pool their cash to purchase shares in a fund that mimics a benchmark index, such as the S&P 500 (hence the name “index fund”).
That was a radically different investment approach when Vanguard founder John Bogle launched the first publicly available index fund in 1976. At the time, active investing — where fund managers try to beat the market's returns — held sway. The index fund sought simply to match the rise and fall of broad market, industry or sector moves, and allowed everyday Americans more access to investing in stocks.
This simpler approach — known as passive investing — has proved more profitable for the average investor than active investing for two reasons: Markets tend to rise over time, and index funds charge lower fees, allowing investors to keep more of their money in the market. As a result, investors now flock to passive funds.
And many of those investors turn to Vanguard, the world’s No. 1 originator of mutual funds, with $8.1 trillion assets under management as of 2022.
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How do Vanguard index funds work?
Vanguard creates index funds by buying securities that represent companies across an entire stock index, or that are targeted to specific groups (for example, an industry sector, similarly sized companies or firms in the same part of the world). Individual investors purchase shares of the fund that interests them, claiming a slice of its returns.
Vanguard also offers index funds that mirror the bond markets, which buy and sell government and corporate debt, and are considered safer investments but with smaller returns.
» Ready to get started? See how to invest in index funds for beginners
Are Vanguard index funds a good investment?
All investments carry risk, and Vanguard index funds are no exception. But Vanguard has a long history of strong performance — and passively investing in index funds is so popular because most actively managed funds fail to consistently outperform the market. In fact, Morningstar found that only about 25% of all active funds beat the average of their passive counterparts over the last 1 years.
As with all mutual funds, a key benefit of Vanguard index funds is instant diversification, spreading out risk and dulling the impact of volatility, as broader stock market swings are less bumpy than the rise and fall of any one company's shares.
» Learn more: Understand the different types of mutual funds
How much does it cost to buy Vanguard index fund shares?
Investors make an initial minimum investment — typically around $3,000 — and pay annual costs to maintain the fund, known as an expense ratio, based on a small percentage of your cash invested in the fund.
» Related: Understand Vanguard mutual funds
There are two types of Vanguard index fund shares available to individual investors, and which one you choose will determine how much you pay up front and how much you’ll pay in annual fees:
Minimum investment: $3,000
Expense ratio range: 0.09% to 1.80%
Note: Most Vanguard index funds no longer offer access to Investor Shares to new investors.
Minimum investment: $3,000
Expense ratio range: 0.04% to 0.45%
Another way investors can get a piece of index fund action is by buying Vanguard exchange-traded funds, which carry no minimum investment and can be bought and sold throughout the day like stocks.
» Learn more: What is an ETF?
There are a variety of per-share prices, depending on the ETF, up to a few hundred dollars. These funds can be good for investors who like to keep a hands-on approach to investing (and have the time to maintain their portfolio, as you can’t make automatic payments or withdrawals with Vanguard ETFs).
How do you buy Vanguard Index fund shares?
Besides investing through your 401(k) provider, there are two ways to purchase index fund shares: directly from Vanguard or by opening a brokerage account.
You’ll need to choose the type of account you’d like to open, such as a traditional or Roth IRA, or a taxable account.
Finally, decide which index fund shares you’d like to purchase depending on how much you have to invest, and whether to make monthly additional share purchases in the fund.
»What’s the difference? Index funds vs. mutual funds
What are the best Vanguard index funds?
Vanguard has a lot of index funds and ETFs to choose from. Which fund is best for you depends on your portfolio mix and what you can afford based on account minimum and fees.
» Examine the cost: Calculate the impact of fees on mutual fund returns
You can also check the fund’s historical performance — with the standard caveat that past performance does not guarantee future results.
Some popular Vanguard index funds include:
Vanguard 500 Index Fund (VFIAX)
Also known as the Vanguard S&P 500 Index fund, this is the one that started them all, giving investors exposure to 500 of the largest U.S. companies, which make up 75% of the U.S. stock market’s total value.
Vanguard Total Stock Market Index Fund (VTSAX)
Three-quarters of the U.S. stock market not enough? This fund covers the entire U.S. equity market, including small-, mid- and large-cap growth and value stocks.
Vanguard Total Bond Market Index Fund (VBTLX)
This fund gives wide exposure to U.S. investment-grade bonds, investing about 30% in corporate bonds and 70% in U.S. government bonds.
Vanguard Balanced Index Fund (VBIAX)
As the name suggests, this fund mixes its investments between stocks (roughly 60%) and bonds (about 40%) to balance growth through exposure to equities with stability through fixed-income investments.
Vanguard Growth Index Fund (VIGAX)
This fund has a buy-and-hold approach for stocks in large U.S. companies in sectors that have larger growth potential, such as technology, consumer services and financial services.
Vanguard Small Cap Index Fund (VSMAX)
Big companies aren’t the only potentially profitable players in the stock market. This fund targets smaller publicly held companies, for investors who want to diversify investments away from larger public companies.
Vanguard Total International Stock Index Fund (VTIAX)
Total U.S. market not enough? This fund takes on the world, tracking stock indexes in both developed and emerging markets across the globe.
OK, what's next?
If you're ready to purchase Vanguard index funds, our Vanguard brokerage review can help you decide whether to buy directly from the company or through another broker (many of which also sell Vanguard index funds). Still unsure? Read more about investing with index funds.