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House-flippers renovated more than 200,000 homes in 2018, with an average gross profit of $65,000 per property, according to researchers from Attom Data. That’s a lot of houses—and a lot of money. Despite the popularity of house-flipping, the biggest barrier to entry and success in this space is cash. Without enough money, you can’t purchase the home, pay for renovations, or find a buyer for the property when the time comes to sell.
Fortunately, if you're wondering how to get funding for house-flipping, you have multiple options—allowing you to quickly purchase your property and get your project underway. Whether you're looking to start a house-flipping business or you're an experienced house-flipper, you can choose from a variety of fix-and-flip-small-business-loan options to add to your portfolio and grow your business as a real estate investor.
In this guide, we'll discuss eight of the best fix-and-flip loans, how to choose the right one for you and what to do before approaching a lender for fix-and-flip financing. Plus, we've included information from actual house flippers who’ve successfully gotten funding for flipping houses to grow their own real estate businesses.
8 ways to get a loan to flip a house
Family or Friend Loans
Beginners and experienced flippers with family members, friends, or acquaintances who want to invest in real estate
House flippers who have deep market knowledge and experience, as well as a well-connected personal network
Home Equity Loan or Line of Credit
Homeowners with have at least 20% equity in their primary residence
Flippers with significant retirement savings, either through an employer 401(k) or solo 401(k)
House flippers with good credit who need a relatively small amount of money
Transactions where the seller doesn’t mind structuring the sale unconventionally
Hard Money Loan
Borrowers with bad credit or who can’t arrange alternative financing methods
Business Line of Credit
Experienced flippers with a history of successful deals and regular income
Every house flip starts with actually finding the property—then you have to figure out how to find fix-and-flip financing. With all of the costs involved with house-flipping, funding is one of the biggest barriers to entry into this industry.
Therefore, unless you’re independently wealthy, you’ll have to borrow money to finance four parts of your house flip:
The purchase price of the house (you’ll need to bring 20% to 45% of the purchase price as a down payment depending on the lender).
The “holding cost” of the home (e.g., insurance payments, HOA fees and other costs of owning the home while renovations are underway).
Materials and labor for the renovation.
Realtor costs and closing costs to find a buyer and sell the property post-renovation.
How Much Do You Need?
Consider these eight best fix-and-flip loan options for your funding needs:
1. Family or friend loans
These fix-and-flip loans are best for beginners and experienced flippers with family members, friends, or acquaintances who want to invest in real estate.
Remember what we said about building your personal network? Personal connections are a great place to start for fix-and-flip financing. Your relatives or friend of a friend could end up as your fix-and-flip lender.
Many people invest in real estate to get above-market returns and might be interested in your project. Plus, since family and friends have a personal connection with you, they’re likely to charge the lowest interest rates. And, if you're looking for fix-and-flip loans but have bad credit, turning to friends and family is going to be one of your most accessible options.
This being said, there are a couple of cardinal rules for borrowing money from family and friends. The first is to get the terms of any loan in writing. You'll want to specify the interest rate and the time it will take to pay back the loan. A written document protects the parties on both sides. The second rule is to follow all IRS and securities laws that apply to family investments, including charging an interest rate equal to the "applicable federal rate."
The terms of fix-and-flip loans will vary based on your geographic market, the size of the loan, the specs of the property, your experience in flipping and the lender’s appetite for risk. Usually, the borrower makes no payments while renovating the house but pays back everything with interest after selling the house. The house serves as collateral for the loan in case the borrower defaults.
Rae Dolan and her husband, owners of AMI House Buyers, financed some of their first fix-and-flips with money that friends lent to them:
“My husband made a joke on Facebook, that if anyone had $100,000 to put behind my sheer determination, to let him know. A friend of ours messaged him. I met with our friend and their spouse, gave them a document that explained the lending process, answered FAQs and showed some past projects we did. They thought about it for a few weeks and came on board. Once their first loan was paid back with interest, they were more than willing to repeat it and upped the available budget.”
2. Find a financing partner
This type of fix-and-flip financing is best for house flippers who have deep market knowledge and experience with home renovations and house flippers with a well-connected personal network (to find a partner).
Many house flippers find themselves in a frustrating position: They have the market knowledge to know what makes a good flipping opportunity but not the money to see the project through. This is where bringing on a partner can help.
Partners can share in the following tasks:
Finding the flipping opportunity.
Planning and managing the renovation.
Supplying the fix-and-flip financing.
Based on what each partner brings to the table, they share in the profits. Usually, one partner supplies the fix-and-flip funding, while the other finds the flipping opportunity and oversees the renovation. You might use the same partner for multiple projects or different partners for different projects.
Lucas Machado, president of House Heroes LLC, has completed upward of 200 fix-and-flip projects. Of partnership financing, Machado says:
“How much of a share the funding partner gets depends on what they are able to negotiate with the other partner(s), and whether or not they are bringing anything else to the venture. If the funding partner is only providing the funding, nothing else, they will typically end up with somewhere between 33% to 50% of the profit. But this isn't a ‘can't lose’ scenario for the partners that aren't funding the deal, because if there's a loss, rather than a profit, the partners also share the loss.”
For example, let’s say you spend $200,000 purchasing and renovating a home (with your partner supplying all the money). If the house sells for only $150,000, you and the partner will divide the $50,000 loss. If it’s a 50-50 partnership split, that means you would have to reimburse the partner $25,000 out of your own pocket.
As with family and friend fix and flip loans, you should document all terms of a joint project with a written partnership agreement. Although hiring a lawyer can be helpful in complicated situations, DIY legal online services like LegalZoom and Rocket Lawyer can also help you put together a partnership agreement on your own.
3. Home equity loan or line of credit
These fix-and-flip loans are best for flippers who are homeowners and have at least 20% equity in their primary residence.
Another popular option for fix-and-flip financing is to tap into the equity in your personal residence with a home loan. This is, of course, only an option if you’re a homeowner. A home equity loan (HEL) or home equity line of credit (HELOC) can give you access to funding for flipping and you can draw on the money as needed. You only pay interest on the money that you use. HELOCs have some of the lowest rates you’ll be able to find. A loan is a lump sum amount, whereas, with a line of credit, you can borrow up to the limit as needed.
To explain further, equity is the difference between the market value of your home and your mortgage balance. To qualify for a home equity loan or line of credit, you should have at least 20% equity in your home, ideally more—depending on how much you want to borrow. You should also have good credit and enough monthly income to afford your mortgage payments and pay off the HEL or HELOC.
Most banks will let you borrow up to 85% of the value of your primary residence, minus your outstanding loan balance. For example, let’s say you have 30% equity in a $300,000 house. That means you still owe $210,000 on your mortgage. A bank would extend you a maximum loan or credit line of around $45,000. If this isn’t enough money to complete your fix-and-flip project, you can combine this funding option with other financing methods.
Brady Hanna, owner of Mill Creek Home Buyers, started flipping properties with a HELOC: “We started out using equity from our HELOC. We had a 10-year term and the rate was fixed at 4.99% for three years and then variable at 1.5% plus prime after that.”
4. 401(k) financing
These fix-and-flip loans are best for house flippers who have a lot of retirement savings, either through an employer 401(k) or solo 401(k) but are not recommended for flippers who are close to retirement age.
Yet another option for financing your fix-and-flip is to take a loan or withdraw funds from your 401(k) account. These aren’t good choices for someone approaching retirement age—but for younger flippers, taking a loan from your 401(k) might be worth it if the rewards outweigh the risks.
Most employer 401(k) accounts let you take a loan of up to 50% of the account balance, or $50,000, whichever is the lower amount. Solo 401(k) plans for self-employed individuals also allow loans of up to $50,000. You do pay interest on the loan, but the money is yours, so you’re paying back the principal and interest to yourself.
The advantages trumped the risks for Kevin Polite, owner of HausZwei Homes. Polite took an early withdrawal from his 401(k) to fund his first few flips:
“My thought was that you are going to be taxed on your 401k later [when you withdraw money] so this was just a way of getting at those funds earlier with a slight hit with the tax penalty of 10%. I'm seeing returns of 15% to 30% on my fix-and-flips, and I have use of the money now and feel I made the right decision.”
Some people also take a loan from their life insurance policy to provide funding for flipping houses, which is similar to taking a loan from your 401(k).
5. Personal loans
These fix-and-flip loans are best for house flippers with good credit who need a relatively small amount of money.
An unsecured personal loan is a very flexible financing product. Just like personal loans for business, when you take a personal loan, you can use the funds for just about any purpose, including financing house flipping.
To qualify for a personal loan, you’ll need a credit score above 650. Rates on personal loans can be as low as 5%. You pay the loan back in monthly installments over a three- to a seven-year term. The catch is that the loan amounts are relatively small, capped at $50,000. So, you may have to combine a personal loan with other loan options to finance your fix-and-flip.
6. Seller financing
This fix-and-flip financing option is best for transactions where the seller doesn’t mind structuring the sale unconventionally.
Seller financing, also called "owner financing," is when the seller of the home acts as the lender. Instead of taking a mortgage from the bank or a lending company, you ask the seller to finance the fix-and-flip deal. Most homeowners want the money from the sale of their house right away. However, it doesn’t hurt to see if the current owner is interested in seller financing, especially if they're eager to sell the home quickly.
Seller financing offers advantages to both the owner and the flipper. Let’s say, for example, you have Sarah Seller and Bob Buyer. Sarah is retiring and selling her fixer-upper for $100,000 and she agrees to extend a loan to Bob. They agree on a down payment of 5%, a 4% interest rate and a maximum term of six months. Bob gives her the $5,000 down payment now and a promissory note for the remaining balance. He pays interest monthly.
Bob spends $25,000 renovating the house and sells it for $150,000. After selling the home, Bob pays Sarah the $95,000 balance and remaining interest. He also pays his contractors for the renovation. Accounting for interest and the cost of the renovations, Bob made nearly $24,000 in profit. And Sarah is happy, too, because she got a nice return on the proceeds of her sale.
Usually, the flipper makes interest-only payments until they sell the property, at which point they pay off the seller in one lump sum. The seller can set a “balloon date,” a specific date by which the borrower has to pay back the loan. By that day, the borrower either has to sell the property or get a new loan to pay off the seller.
As with partner financing, you should have the terms of an owner financing deal in writing. Since the seller here is a third party (not someone you know, as is typical with partner financing), it’s wise to have a lawyer draft up the loan papers.
7. Hard money loans
These fix-and-flip loans are best for borrowers with bad credit and borrowers who can’t arrange alternative financing methods.
Hard money loans are non-bank loans from private investors or individuals. Hard money lenders have lower qualification requirements and can provide funding for flipping houses in just one to two weeks.
Since hard money lenders work with less qualified borrowers, they charger higher interest rates, in the neighborhood of 10% to 20%. Plus, these lenders usually tack on fees, making the total cost even higher. Therefore, it’s better to consider other, more affordable options first—before applying for a hard money loan.
A variety of private-business-loan lenders and online platforms specialize in hard money loans for fix-and-flips. For example, LendingHome is a popular online hard money lender. Additionally, RealtyMogul, RealtyShares (now part of IIRC Management Services), Patch of Land are all hard money crowdfunding platforms—so-called because multiple investors pool their money to finance your project.
This being said, hard money loans are designed to “tide you over” until you complete the renovations on your property and sell it. As a result, the average hard money loan has a one-year term, although longer options are available. Hard money loans also require a relatively small down payment (usually just 10%) because the lender cares more about the potential in the property than the background of the borrower.
Moreover, hard money lenders are pretty “hands-on” once they approve your loan. They generally extend the loan in parts. First, they’ll give you the money for the home purchase and the first set of renovations. Once the contractor completes initial renovations, you’ll get the money for the next set of renovations and so on.
8. Business line of credit
This fix-and-flip financing option is best for experienced flippers with a history of successful deals and regular income.
Once you’ve been flipping properties for a while, the possibility of bank financing sometimes opens up.
As we mentioned, traditional bank loans don’t work well for fix-and-flip funding; however, business lines of credit can offer investors funding for house-flipping. With a business or commercial line of credit, you get access to a specific amount of money but only pay for what you use. This makes a business line of credit ideal when you're unsure of how much renovations might cost on a property or how long a renovation might take. Business lines of credit work like a HELOC, but the difference is the amount of money at your disposal. Commercial lines of credit can go up to as much as seven figures, based on your business’s income and your portfolio of fix-and-flips.
You can apply for a commercial line of credit at your local bank. Bank of America, Chase, Wells Fargo and smaller community banks all offer small business lines of credit. The interest rates on these are very low; but remember, to qualify for a commercial line of credit, you’ll need to have an excellent credit score (above 700), a decent amount of money in the bank and a stable history of revenues.
Are bank loans an option?
With the above financing options in mind, you may be wondering why bank loans aren't on the list. That's because trying to get a traditional bank loan is not usually the best option for fix-and-flip loans.
As a house-flipper, you’re essentially a real estate investor, and your income can be seasonal and irregular—because of this, most banks won’t give you a business loan for fixing and flipping properties. Additionally, if you're looking for fix-and-flip loans for beginners, a bank is even less likely to offer you that kind of financing since you have no experience to prove you can pay back the loan.
Plus, even if a bank is willing to work with you, their loan product might not be suitable. Bank loans are generally long-term loans—and most flippers buy, renovate and sell a property within a few months. So, since it's hard to get a business loan from a bank, house-flippers usually look for alternatives.
As we discussed above, if you're a first-time flipper, you might consider asking for fix-and-flip loans from your own circle of friends and family. You might also consider more creative options, such as tapping into home equity. Once you’ve built up a successful track record as a house-flipper, fix-and-flip financing from private investors and bank lines of credit become more of a possibility.
What to do before applying for fix-and-flip financing
Now that we've discussed your top options for fix-and-flip loans, let's break down what you need to do before applying for financing. Ultimately, real estate investment is one of those industries where you primarily learn by doing—the more flips you have under your belt, the more you’ll understand what works and doesn’t work for you in terms of fix-and-flip financing.
This being said, as a fix-and-flip beginner, you can use these three points to speed up the borrowing process and give your lender more assurance that you have a good head on your shoulders.
1. Create a business plan for each flip.
Fix-and-flip lenders customarily lend money to rehabilitate properties in poor condition. But no one knows the specifics of a property better than you do. You’ll need to supply the lender with information about each property that you’re flipping.
This is where a house-flipping business plan helps. You don’t need to create a 50-page booklet for every property in your portfolio, but you should write up a thorough analysis of each property that contains the following:
The exact address of the property
Analysis of the neighborhood where you’re buying the property
Sale prices for comparable homes in the neighborhood (also called “comps”)
Strategy, timeline and financial projections for the renovation (flippers refer to this information as the “scope of work”)
Background on anyone who will assist you with the project (e.g., a partner, home inspector, or general contractor)
Backup plan in case the renovation doesn’t go according to plan (e.g., will you rent out the property while you search for a buyer?)
A professional appraiser’s current valuation of the property and estimated valuation after renovations
Addressing each of these points in your house-flipping business plan will encourage lenders to take you seriously. It’ll also ensure that you get a large enough loan to cover all your costs.
2. Accurately estimate renovation costs.
Lots of flippers end up not borrowing enough money from their fix-and-flip lender. Your whole project can fail if you don’t have enough funds to pay your contractors. The best way to avoid this problem is by creating an extensive scope of work before applying for a fix-and-flip loan. A scope of work is a detailed outline of all the repairs you’ll be conducting on the home, the cost and the timeline.
To create a scope of work, you’ll need the help of an experienced appraiser and contractor. Together, these parties will walk through the property, research comparable projects and give you an estimate of cost and timeline. They’ll typically quote the cost and timeline along a range (e.g., two to three months) to account for unknown contingencies.
You should have a comprehensive scope of work before reaching out to a lender, or you won’t know how much money to borrow. The scope of work will also contain two other numbers that are important with regard to fix-and-flip financing: loan-to-value (LTV) and after-repair value (ARV).
LTV and ARV
LTV is a comparison of your loan size to the value of the property. The maximum LTV on fix-and-flip loans is typically 90%. For example, if you’re eyeing a $100,000 property, a lender who provides 90% LTV will lend you $90,000. You have to provide the remaining $10,000 as a down payment.
ARV is an appraiser’s estimate of the home’s value after renovations are finished. Some lenders quote business loan amounts based on ARV. For example, if a lender goes up to 70% ARV, they will lend a maximum of $140,000 on a home that will be worth $200,000 after repairs. You can usually borrow more money from a lender who bases their loan sizes on ARV.
3. Build up your network.
One last thing to remember before applying for fix-and-flip loans is that real estate is a profession where connections are important. You might consider joining your local Real Estate Investors Association (REIA) or club to meet other investors.
Many real estate investors are on both sides of the table—they borrow money for their own projects but also invest in other people’s projects. So, the people you meet could end up as partners or lenders for your next deal.
The bottom line
You'll want to keep the following in mind when trying to get funding for flipping houses:
Fix-and-flip financing starts close to home. Think about family members and friends in your personal network who might be able to lend to you.
Bring a partner or the current owner in on your deal.
A home equity line of credit, 401(k) loan, or personal loan can also be helpful, especially if you don’t need too much funding.
If other options don’t work out, try a hard money loan or crowdfunding platform.
You'll also want to remember that many flippers use a combination of the methods above to finance their projects. Plus, as you complete more successful flips, you'll become more well-known in the community, and lenders and investors will be more open to working with you.
This article originally appeared on Fundera, a subsidiary of NerdWallet.