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2023-2024 Tax Brackets and Federal Income Tax Rates

There are seven federal income tax brackets for 2023 and 2024. Your tax rate is determined by your income and tax filing status.
Tina Orem
Sabrina Parys
By Sabrina Parys and  Tina Orem 
Updated
Reviewed by Lei Han

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There are seven federal income tax rates and brackets in 2023 and 2024: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% and 37%. Taxable income and filing status determine which federal tax rates apply to you, and how much in taxes you'll owe that year.

These federal tax rates will remain the same until 2025 as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. However, the IRS can adjust income thresholds for each federal tax bracket each year to reflect inflation

.

» Ready to crunch the numbers? Estimate your refund or bill with NerdWallet's tax calculator

🤓Nerdy Tip

Inflation adjustments can help prevent taxpayers from ending up in a higher tax bracket as their cost of living rises, a scenario called “bracket creep.” Tax bracket adjustments can also lower taxes for those whose compensation has not kept up with inflation.

2023 tax brackets and income tax rates

Federal income tax returns for the 2023 tax year are due by April 15, 2024, or October 15, 2024, with a tax extension.

Tax brackets 2023

Tax rate

Single filers

Married filing jointly

Married filing separately

Head of household

10%

$0 to $11,000

$0 to $22,000

$0 to $11,000

$0 to $15,700

12%

$11,001 to $44,725

$22,001 to $89,450

$11,001 to $44,725

$15,701 to $59,850

22%

$44,726 to $95,375

$89,451 to $190,750

$44,726 to $95,375

$59,851 to $95,350

24%

$95,376 to $182,100

$190,751 to $364,200

$95,376 to $182,100

$95,351 to $182,100

32%

$182,101 to $231,250

$364,201 to $462,500

$182,101 to $231,250

$182,101 to $231,250

35%

$231,251 to $578,125

$462,501 to $693,750

$231,251 to $346,875

$231,251 to $578,100

37%

$578,126 or more

$693,751 or more

$346,876 or more

$578,101 or more

2023 tax rates and brackets for each filing status

Tax Rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $11,000.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,001 to $44,725.

$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000.

22%

$44,726 to $95,375.

$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725.

24%

$95,376 to $182,100.

$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375.

32%

$182,101 to $231,250.

$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100.

35%

$231,251 to $578,125.

$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250.

37%

$578,126 or more.

$174,238.25 plus 37% of the amount over $578,125.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $22,000.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$22,001 to $89,450.

$2,200 plus 12% of the amount over $22,000.

22%

$89,451 to $190,750.

$10,294 plus 22% of the amount over $89,450.

24%

$190,751 to $364,200.

$32,580 plus 24% of the amount over $190,750.

32%

$364,201 to $462,500.

$74,208 plus 32% of the amount over $364,200.

35%

$462,501 to $693,750.

$105,664 plus 35% of the amount over $462,500.

37%

$693,751 or more.

$186,601.50 + 37% of the amount over $693,750.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $11,000.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,001 to $44,725.

$1,100 plus 12% of the amount over $11,000.

22%

$44,726 to $95,375.

$5,147 plus 22% of the amount over $44,725.

24%

$95,376 to $182,100.

$16,290 plus 24% of the amount over $95,375.

32%

$182,101 to $231,250.

$37,104 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100.

35%

$231,251 to $346,875.

$52,832 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250.

37%

$346,876 or more.

$93,300.75 plus 37% of the amount over $346,875.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $15,700.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$15,701 to $59,850.

$1,570 plus 12% of the amount over $15,700.

22%

$59,851 to $95,350.

$6,868 plus 22% of the amount over $59,850.

24%

$95,351 to $182,100.

$14,678 plus 24% of the amount over $95,350.

32%

$182,101 to $231,250.

$35,498 plus 32% of the amount over $182,100.

35%

$231,251 to $578,100.

$51,226 plus 35% of the amount over $231,250.

37%

$578,101 or more.

$172,623.50 plus 37% of the amount over $578,100.

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2024 tax brackets and income tax rates

There are seven income tax rates, ranging from 10% to 37%. The 2024 tax brackets apply to income earned in 2024, which is reported on tax returns filed in 2025.

Tax Rate

Single

Married filing jointly

Married filing separately

Head of household

10%

$0 to $11,600.

$0 to $23,200.

$0 to $11,600.

$0 to $16,550.

12%

$11,601 to $47,150.

$23,201 to $94,300.

$11,601 to $47,150.

$16,551 to $63,100.

22%

$47,151 to $100,525.

$94,301 to $201,050.

$47,151 to $100,525.

$63,101 to $100,500.

24%

$100,526 to $191,950.

$201,051 to $383,900.

$100,526 to $191,950.

$100,501 to $191,950.

32%

$191,951 to $243,725.

$383,901 to $487,450.

$191,951 to $243,725.

$191,951 to $243,700.

35%

$243,726 to $609,350.

$487,451 to $731,200.

$243,726 to $365,600.

$243,701 to $609,350.

37%

$609,351 or more.

$731,201 or more.

$365,601 or more.

$609,350 or more.

2024 tax rates and brackets for each filing status

Tax Rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $11,600.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,601 to $47,150.

$1,160 plus 12% of the amount over $11,600.

22%

$47,151 to $100,525.

$5,426 plus 22% of the amount over $47,150.

24%

$100,526 to $191,950.

$17,168.50 plus 24% of the amount over $100,525.

32%

$191,951 to $243,725.

$39,110.50 plus 32% of the amount over $191,950.

35%

$243,726 to $609,350.

$55,678.50 plus 35% of the amount over $243,725.

37%

$609,351 or more.

$183,647.25 plus 37% of the amount over $609,350.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $23,200.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$23,201 to $94,300.

$2,320 plus 12% of the amount over $23,200.

22%

$94,301 to $201,050.

$10,852 plus 22% of the amount over $94,300.

24%

$201,051 to $383,900.

$34,337 plus 24% of the amount over $201,050.

32%

$383,901 to $487,450.

$78,221 plus 32% of the amount over $383,900.

35%

$487,451 to $731,200.

$111,357 plus 35% of the amount over $487,450.

37%

$731,201 or more.

$196,669.50 + 37% of the amount over $731,200.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Taxes owed

10%

$0 to $11,600.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$11,601 to $47,150.

$1,160 plus 12% of the amount over $11,600.

22%

$47,151 to $100,525.

$5,426 plus 22% of the amount over $47,150.

24%

$100,526 to $191,950.

$17,168.50 plus 24% of the amount over $100,525.

32%

$191,951 to $243,725.

$39,110.50 plus 32% of the amount over $191,950.

35%

$243,726 to $365,600

$55,678.50 plus 35% of the amount over $243,725.

37%

$365,601 or more.

$98,334.75 plus 37% of the amount over $365,600.

Tax rate

Taxable income bracket

Tax owed

10%

$0 to $16,550.

10% of taxable income.

12%

$16,551 to $63,100.

$1,655 plus 12% of the amount over $16,500.

22%

$63,101 to $100,500.

$7,241 plus 22% of the amount over $63,100.

24%

$100,501 to $191,950.

$15,469 plus 24% of the amount over $100,500.

32%

$191,951 to $243,700.

$37,417 plus 32% of the amount over $191,950.

35%

$243,701 to $609,350.

$53,977 plus 35% of the amount over $243,700.

37%

$609,350 or more.

$181,954.50 plus 37% of the amount over $609,350.

How income tax brackets work

1. Federal income tax rates are progressive

The U.S. has a progressive tax system. Broadly, this means that the government decides how much tax you owe by dividing your taxable income into chunks — also known as tax brackets — and each chunk gets taxed at the corresponding tax rate. The highest tax rate, the marginal rate, applies to only a portion of your income.

The progressive tax system also means that people with higher taxable incomes are subject to higher federal income tax rates, and people with lower taxable incomes are subject to lower federal income tax rates. The beauty of tax brackets is that no matter which bracket you’re in, you won’t pay that tax rate on your entire income.

Example: If you had $50,000 of taxable income in 2023 as a single filer, you’d pay 10% on that first $11,000 and 12% on the chunk of income between $11,001 and $44,725. And then you’d pay 22% on the rest because some of your $50,000 of taxable income falls into the 22% tax bracket. The total bill would be about $6,300 — about 13% of your taxable income, even though you're in the 22% bracket. That 13% is your effective tax rate.

2. State income taxes may work differently than federal income taxes

States may handle taxes differently than the federal government. Your state might have different brackets, or it might altogether use a different system. Colorado, for example, levies a flat income tax rate of 4.4% on taxable income, and some states, such as Wyoming, don't levy a state income tax at all.

What is a marginal tax rate?

The marginal tax rate is the tax rate paid on your last dollar of taxable income. This typically equates to your highest tax bracket.

For example, if you're a single filer in 2023 with $35,000 of taxable income, you would be in the 12% tax bracket. If your taxable income went up by $1, you would pay 12% on that extra dollar, too.

If you had $45,000 of taxable income, however, most of it would still fall within the 12% bracket, but the last few hundred dollars would land in the 22% tax bracket. Your marginal tax rate would then be 22%.

What is an effective tax rate?

The percentage of your taxable income that you pay in taxes is called your effective tax rate. To determine your effective tax rate, divide your total tax owed (line 16) on Form 1040 by your total taxable income (line 15).

How to reduce taxes owed

Two common ways of reducing your tax bill are credits and deductions.

  • Tax credits can reduce your tax bill on a dollar-for-dollar basis; they don't affect what bracket you're in.

  • Tax deductions, on the other hand, reduce how much of your income is subject to taxes. Generally, deductions lower your taxable income by the percentage of your highest federal income tax bracket. So, if you fall into the 22% tax bracket, a $1,000 deduction could save you $220.

In other words, take all the tax deductions you can claim. Deductions can reduce your taxable income and could kick you to a lower bracket, which means you pay a lower tax rate.

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