What Are Required Minimum Distributions, or RMDs?

The IRS enforces annual required minimum distributions from many retirement accounts beginning at age 72.
Arielle O'SheaAug 18, 2021
What Are Required Minimum Distributions?

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The IRS spends a lot of energy making sure people don’t tap their retirement accounts, imposing taxes and penalties on most early withdrawals. So it might surprise you to learn that at a certain point, the agency forces you to take money out of your account through required minimum distributions.

These distributions, often referred to as RMDs, are primarily enforced on tax-deferred retirement accounts: workplace plans such as 401(k)s and 403(b)s, as well as traditional individual retirement accounts and self-employed retirement plans, including SIMPLE and SEP IRAs. Roth 401(k) accounts are also subject to RMDs.

You’ll note one account missing from the list above: don't require RMDs while the account holder is alive. But if you’ve inherited a Roth IRA, you might be required to take distributions. You can .

RMDs are a minimum amount you must withdraw from your retirement account each year by Dec. 31, generally beginning in the year you turn 72. (The RMD age was increased from 70½ as part of the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act, or SECURE Act, which passed at the end of 2019.) There are a couple of exceptions:

If you skip a required distribution or fail to take enough, there's a steep, steep penalty: When you file taxes, you'll owe 50% of the amount not distributed.

Other important things to know: You can always withdraw more than the minimum — this is a floor, not a ceiling — and unless the money you withdraw was already taxed, these distributions will be taxable as income in the year you take them. In other words, this is an opportunity for the IRS to start collecting those taxes you’ve been able to defer.

RMDs are calculated via some easy math — just kidding! This is the IRS we’re talking about.

To calculate your retired minimum distribution for the current year, divide your account balance at the end of the last year by a distribution period that is based on your age. Those periods are available in two tables:

You could also skip that song and dance and use our RMD calculator below.

If you have more than one retirement account that's subject to RMDs, you’ll have to calculate the distribution for each account separately. However, if you have more than one IRA, the IRS allows you to take your total IRA RMD from just one of them.

The same rule applies if you have more than one 403(b) plan. But if you have multiple 401(k)s or 457(b)s, you must pull an RMD from each account separately.

If you need help staying on top of accounts and maximizing your retirement plan, you may want to find an advisor that suits your needs.

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