529 Plan Rules and Contribution Limits
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The price of higher education doesn't come cheap, which means it's a good idea to start saving while your kid is learning their ABCs — not while they're studying for their SATs.
For most people, the choice of college savings vehicle is easy: 529 plans offer some great incentives for saving.
A 529 plan provides tax-free investment growth and withdrawals for qualified education expenses. Parents who start saving in a 529 account when their children are young can take advantage of those tax savings, as well as compounded returns and — in some states — a tax deduction on contributions.
But 529 plans also come with some complicated rules, particularly around distributions. Here's what you need to know.
529 contribution limits
Unlike other tax-advantaged accounts like a such as Roth and traditional IRAs, the IRS doesn’t set a cap on 529 contribution limits. States can set their own limit, however. Most states do set 529 max contribution limits somewhere between $235,000 and $529,000.
Contributions may trigger gift tax consequences if you earmark more than the gift tax exclusion ($17,000 for 2023) for any one beneficiary in a tax year. The vast majority of people do not need to worry about this since they are unlikely to need to contribute that much per year to meet their savings goals.
» Feeling generous? Learn about the gift tax
529 plan rules
1. 529 plans are state-sponsored, but you can pick a plan from any state
Most states offer at least one 529 plan. You don’t have to invest in your own state’s plan, but many states offer residents a state tax deduction for doing so. (There is no federal tax deduction for 529 contributions.) If your state doesn’t offer any tax benefits, shop around to find the best plan for you — NerdWallet has a list of all state 529 plans.
The state that sponsors your plan doesn’t have any role in where your child can go to school; students can use the money to attend a qualified school in any state.
The exception to that is a specific kind of 529 plan called a prepaid plan, which, as the name implies, allows you to prepay tuition at an in-state, public college, locking in the cost in today’s dollars and at current tuition rates. These plans make sense only if you’re sure your child will attend an in-state, public school. Only a few states currently offer prepaid 529 plans.
2. The account holder maintains ownership of the funds
Unlike other college savings vehicles such as custodial accounts, 529 plans allow the funds to remain under the account owner’s control, meaning you can withdraw the money at any time (though taxes and penalties may apply; more on this below). The beneficiary does not have control over the money in the account, even when they reach the age of majority, which is between the ages of 18 and 21, depending on the state.
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3. Qualified distribution rules are strict
A 529 is specifically for qualified education expenses, though that category extends beyond tuition; it also includes fees, room and board, textbooks, computers and “peripheral equipment” (such as a printer).
A 529 plan can also be used to pay for private or religious elementary, middle and high school tuition. Withdrawals made for purposes outside the rules will hurt: Earnings withdrawn for non-qualified expenses are subject to a 10% penalty and ordinary income taxes. There is no penalty on the principal.
There are a few exceptions: If the beneficiary receives a scholarship, you can withdraw money equal to the amount awarded; the earnings will still be subject to taxes, but there will be no additional penalty. Parents can also change the beneficiary on the account at any time. If, for example, your first child decides to take a different path, you can change the account beneficiary so that the money will go toward paying for a younger sibling’s education instead.
Lastly, Secure 2.0, passed in December 2022, allows for a 529 to be rolled over to a Roth IRA tax and penalty-free after 15 years. These rollovers have a lifetime limit of $35,000.
» Planning for the future? Learn the difference between wills and trusts
For many families, 529 plans will be the obvious choice for college savings. Most plans offer age-based investment options that will automatically rebalance, taking more risk as your child is young and less as they approach college age. You can open a 529 plan directly through your state’s plan website or through some online brokers.
» Find your state's 529 plan: 529 plans by state
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