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401(k) plans are an excellent way to save for retirement, but because 401(k)s are tax-advantaged, the IRS sets a contribution limit on how much you — and your employer — can put into your 401(k) per year.
For 2021, your total 401(k) contributions — from yourself and your employer — cannot exceed $58,000 or 100% of your compensation, whichever is less.
Employers who match employees' 401(k) contributions often do so between 3% and 6% of the employee's salary. So if you make $50,000 and contribute 5% of your salary ($2,500) and your employer matches that full 5%, you'll add $5,000 to your balance each year.
It depends on what your salary is. The maximum individuals can contribute is $19,500 for those under 50 or $26,000 for those 50 or older.
No. Roth 401(k)s have the same contribution limit as regular 401(k)s. For 2021, that limit is $19,500. You can contribute to both a traditional 401(k) and a Roth 401(k) account in the same year, as long as your total contributions don’t exceed that amount. If you’re choosing between the two, .
While there's not a universal income limit on 401(k) contributions, in some cases the IRS does impose contribution limits on "highly compensated employees" when a company encounters disproportionate contribution levels among its workers. The IRS has a test that helps employers who sponsor 401(k) plans assess whether employees are participating in their plan at levels proportionate to their compensation.
If the test determines that people across compensation levels aren't participating in a manner the IRS deems proportionate, employee contribution levels for highly compensated employees can be lowered. In these cases, your employer may need to return some of your excess contributions.
The IRS defines a highly compensated employee in one of two ways:
Yes. IRAs make a great supplement to retirement savings if you’re contributing enough to receive a full match from your employer, or you’re planning on maxing out your 401(k). If you don’t receive a match on your 401(k) or it has narrow investment options or high fees, it may be a good idea to invest primarily in an IRA. The annual contribution limit for an IRA in 2021 is $6,000, or $7,000 if you’re 50 or older.
» Ready to try an IRA? Check out our list of
If you contribute too much to your 401(k) and notice your mistake before April 15, you can probably correct it with your employer. You’ll need to notify your plan administrator. They’ll return the excess money to you, and you’ll get a new W-2 and pay taxes on your new total taxable wages.
If you don’t catch the mistake before tax day, you may have to pay taxes twice on the amount you contributed over the limit. That’s because the excess contribution can’t be deducted from your taxes in the year it was made, and because the IRS will still count that money as taxable when it’s distributed too.