How Does a Roth IRA Work?

A Roth IRA gives investors a 'pay now, save later' tax advantage, unlike 401(k)s or traditional IRAs.
Kevin Voigt
By Kevin Voigt 
Edited by Chris Hutchison

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The Roth IRA is about delayed gratification: Unlike other individual retirement accounts, with a Roth IRA you pay taxes on your contributions every year. But also unlike other individual retirement accounts, with a Roth you pay no taxes on distributions — including your investment growth — when you reach retirement age.

Roth IRAs also allow you to withdraw contributions at any time without a penalty. That makes Roth IRAs a good tool not only for retirement savings, but also for goals such as saving for college or a down payment on a house.

You can even tap them in the case of financial emergencies, though it's a good rule of thumb to avoid draining retirement savings during your working years unless it’s absolutely necessary.

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» Ready to get started? Check out NerdWallet’s top picks for Roth IRA providers.

How Roth IRAs are different

The Roth IRA, like a traditional IRA, builds savings by allowing its owner to make regular contributions and invest them in a portfolio of stocks, bonds, mutual funds or other investments. (Read more about how to earn money in a Roth IRA.)

Unlike the alphabet soup of other retirement account names, such as IRA, SIMPLE IRA, 401(k) and 403(b), the Roth IRA is named after a real human being: Sen. William Roth, who 20 years ago led the creation of this unique retirement plan.

“Bill wanted to create a culture of savings,” his widow, Judge Jane Roth of the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, told NerdWallet in a conversation in 2016. “He realized how important and how difficult it was for people to save money for higher education and retirement. One of his aims was to find incentives and methods and to help with that.”

With the Roth IRA, the reward for paying more taxes now is a heftier tax savings down the line as your investments grow. As this Roth IRA calculator shows, a 35-year-old with an $80,000 annual income who contributes $5,500 to a Roth IRA until retiring at 67 could end up with $518,000 in savings (assuming a 6% annual return).

But unlike a traditional IRA, all those post-retirement withdrawals would be tax-free, offering a savings of more than $130,000 in retirement. (Fans of traditional IRAs, however, might note that those accounts could offer tax benefits throughout the saver’s working years that a Roth could not.)

Limitations of the Roth

The tax savings are so good, the government restricts the amount Roth IRA holders can contribute. The annual limit is $6,500 in 2023 ($7,500 if age 50 and older).

IRS rules also limit who qualifies for a Roth: High earners may be restricted from contributing the full amount each year — or even from contributing at all, as the tables below show.

Roth IRA income and contribution limits

Filing status

2022-2023 Income range

Maximum annual contribution

Single, head of household or married filing separately (if you didn't live with spouse during year)

  • Less than $129,000 in 2022.

  • Less than $138,000 in 2023.

  • $6,000 ($7,000 if 50 or older) in 2022.

  • $6,500 ($7,500 if 50 or older) in 2023.

  • $129,000 up to $144,000 in 2022.

  • $138,000 up to $153,000 in 2023.

Contribution is reduced

  • $144,000 or more in 2022.

  • $153,000 or more in 2023.

No contribution allowed

Married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er)

  • Less than $204,000 in 2022.

  • Less than $218,000 in 2023.

  • $6,000 per person ($7,000 if 50 or older) in 2022.

  • $6,500 per person ($7,500 if 50 or older) in 2023.

  • $204,000 to $214,000 in 2022.

  • $218,000 to $228,000 in 2023.

Contribution is reduced

  • $214,000 or more in 2022.

  • $228,000 or more in 2023.

No contribution allowed

Married filing separately (if you lived with spouse at any time during year)

Less than $10,000

Contribution is reduced

$10,000 or more

No contribution allowed

While the ability to withdraw Roth IRA contributions anytime without taxes or penalty is attractive, it’s important to know that applies only to the amount you’ve contributed to the account, not to any additional money that it's earned. Any earnings withdrawn from the account before age 59½ would typically be penalized twice: an initial 10% penalty taken off the top, then the usual tax you’d pay on the additional income (though there are some exceptions). See the Roth IRA withdrawal rules.

The 'pay now, save later' tax feature is especially appealing if you expect your tax bracket to rise in the years ahead and remain relatively high in your retirement years.

Of course, the longer you avoid withdrawals and make annual contributions to a Roth IRA, the more cash you’ll potentially accrue, and the greater tax savings you’ll likely have down the line. The “pay now, save later” tax feature is especially appealing if you expect your tax bracket to rise in the years ahead and remain relatively high in your retirement years.




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Getting started with a Roth IRA

Most online brokers, banks and robo-advisors offer Roth IRAs. When shopping for the right provider, a good first question to ask yourself is whether you might prefer a hands-off, “please do it for me” approach to investing. If so, you might lean toward a robo-advisor and its automated investment process, which uses your goals and risk tolerance to pick your investments.

If you want to choose your own investments — or learn how to do so — then an online brokerage firm may be the right place to start. You’ll want to look for a broker with a user-friendly platform and a wide range of low-cost investment choices. You may also wish to choose a broker with a branch network near you if you desire face-to-face help.

» Ready to try a Roth IRA? Here are some providers that made our list of best Roth IRA accounts:

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